Although wheat is the most widely grown of any crop globally, the gains in breeding programs have slowed down relative to the future demand. In an effort to increase wheat yield, CIMMYT has stablished a series of research programs aiming to understand the physiological basis of increasing yield potential through the identification of desirable physiological traits, including traits that confer climate resistance and increased grain quality. Although outstanding results have been achieved through these programs over the years, wheat yield trends show that more research is still needed as future demand is expected to increase up to 60% by 2050. To begin with, the approaches based on physiological understanding of wheat yield potential need to be further explored. Therefore, primary research on breeding wheat for increased yield potential, quality and climate resistance will be conducted in order to contribute to the understanding of the physiological and genetic basis that promote higher yield and biomass production in wheat.